Unemployment rates were higher in January than a year earlier in 376 of the 389 metropolitan

areas, lower in 9 areas, and unchanged in 4 areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported
today. A total of 21 areas had jobless rates of at least 10.0 percent and 34 had rates of less
than 4.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll employment decreased over the year in 218 metropolitan areas,
increased in 1 area, and was essentially unchanged in 170 areas. The national unemployment rate
in January was 6.8 percent, not seasonally adjusted, up from 4.0 percent a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor force and
unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those used for the national
household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals by where they reside. The employment
data are from an establishment survey that measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by
industry. These data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where the establishments are located.
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodologies used by these two programs,
see the Technical Note.

 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 
|												|
|                   Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment Data Changes                  |
|  												|
| In accordance with annual practices, historical data in tables 1 through 4 of this news	|
| release have been revised. For detailed information on the revisions, see the box notes at    |
| the end of the news release.									|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________________|


Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In January, El Centro, CA, had the highest unemployment rate, 16.5 percent, while Logan, UT-ID,
had the lowest rate, 2.5 percent. A total of 247 areas had January jobless rates below the U.S.
rate of 6.8 percent, 136 areas had rates above it, and 6 areas had rates equal to that of the 
nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate increase in January occurred in Kahului-Wailuku-
Lahaina, HI (+11.8 percentage points). Rates rose over the year by at least 5.0 percentage
points in an additional 11 areas. The largest over-the-year jobless rate decrease occurred
in El Centro, CA (-3.4 percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Los Angeles-
Long Beach-Anaheim, CA, had the highest unemployment rate in January, 11.5 percent. Salt Lake
City, UT, had the lowest jobless rate among the large areas, 3.5 percent. All 51 large areas
had over-the-year unemployment rate increases, the largest of which was in Los Angeles-Long
Beach-Anaheim, CA (+7.1 percentage points). The smallest rate increase from a year earlier
occurred in Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI (+0.7 percentage point).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions,
which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In January, Los Angeles-
Long Beach-Glendale, CA, had the highest unemployment rate among the divisions, 12.7 percent.
Nashua, NH-MA, had the lowest division rate, 4.3 percent. (See table 2.)

In January, all 38 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate increases,
the largest of which was in Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+7.8 percentage points).
The smallest rate increase occurred in Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills, MI (+0.4 percentage 
point).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In January, 218 metropolitan areas had over-the-year decreases in nonfarm payroll employment,
1 had an increase, and 170 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment
decreases occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (-1,109,700), Los Angeles-Long
Beach-Anaheim, CA (-761,900), and Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI (-406,100). The largest
over-the-year percentage losses in employment occurred in Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI (-26.8
percent), Lake Charles, LA (-18.7 percent), and Odessa, TX (-17.7 percent). The over-the-year
increase in employment occurred in Ocean City, NJ (+5,000, or +14.7 percent). (See table 3.) 

Over the year, nonfarm employment declined in 50 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population
of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 1. The largest over-the-year
percentage decreases in employment in these large metropolitan areas occurred in Las Vegas-
Henderson-Paradise, NV (-14.1 percent), Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL (-12.9 percent), and
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (-12.2 percent). 

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In January, nonfarm payroll employment decreased in 35 metropolitan divisions over the year 
and was essentially unchanged in 3. The largest over-the-year decrease in employment among the
metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (-858,700),
followed by Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (-562,400), and Chicago-Naperville-Arlington
Heights, IL (-342,700). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage decreases in employment occurred in San Francisco-Redwood
City-South San Francisco, CA (-13.5 percent), Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (-12.3
percent), and Peabody-Salem-Beverly, MA (-12.2 percent).

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for February is scheduled to be released
on Friday, March 26, 2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan Area Employment and 
Unemployment news release for February is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, April 7,
2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


 __________________________________________________________________________________________________
|												   |
|                        Changes to Local Area Unemployment Statistics Data                        |
|												   |
| Effective with the issuance of Regional and State Unemployment 2020 Annual Averages on March 3,  |
| 2021, the civilian labor force and unemployment data for all states, the District of Columbia,   |
| and the modeled substate areas presented in tables 1 and 2 of this news release were replaced	   |
| with data produced using a new generation of time-series models. At that time, revised	   |
| model-based estimates were loaded into the BLS time-series database back to the series 	   |
| beginnings in 1976, 1990, or 1994. More information is available in the "Questions and Answers   |
| on Changes to Model-Based Estimation" on the BLS website at					   |
| www.bls.gov/lau/gen-5-changes-in-2021.htm. The revisions to model-based data for 2019 and 2020   |
| also incorporated updated estimation inputs, while the revisions from April 2010 forward also	   |
| reflected the use of new population controls from the U.S. Census Bureau.			   |
| 												   |
| Data for non-modeled substate areas, including the non-modeled metropolitan areas and 	   |
| metropolitan divisions presented in tables 1 and 2 of this news release, are being updated in	   |
| the BLS time-series database in two phases. First, on March 19, 2021, historical data through	   |
| December 2009 were adjusted to the new totals for model-based areas. Second, on April 16, 	   |
| 2021, data from January 2010 through December 2020 will be revised to reflect updated estimation |
| inputs and adjustment to the new totals for model-based areas.				   |
| 												   |
| Civilian labor force and unemployment data for the non-modeled metropolitan areas and divisions  |
| presented in tables 1 and 2 of this news release have been revised for 2020 to incorporate	   |
| updated inputs and adjustment to new state control totals, though not yet finalized. Revised	   |
| estimates for these areas and divisions will not be loaded into the BLS time-series database	   |
| until finalized on April 16, 2021. Therefore, the database does not match the data for 2020 	   |
| presented in this news release. For more information, see www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.	   |
|__________________________________________________________________________________________________|


 __________________________________________________________________________________________________
|												   |
|                           Changes to Current Employment Statistics Data                          |
|												   |
| Effective with this news release, all nonfarm payroll employment estimates for states and 	   |
| metropolitan areas (tables 3 and 4) have been revised as a result of annual benchmark processing |
| to reflect 2020 employment counts primarily from the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and 	   |
| Wages (QCEW), as well as updating of seasonal adjustment factors. Not seasonally adjusted data   |
| beginning with April 2019 and seasonally adjusted data beginning with January 2016 were subject  |
| to revision. Some not seasonally adjusted and seasonally adjusted series may have been revised   |
| as far back as 1990. Information on annual benchmark processing is available at                  |
| www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.				                                   |
|__________________________________________________________________________________________________|
												    
												    
 __________________________________________________________________________________________________
|												   |
|                      Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on January 2021                      |
|			      Establishment and Household Survey Data				   |
|												   |
| BLS has continued to review all estimation and methodological procedures for the establishment   |
| survey, which included the review of data, estimation processes, the application of the	   |
| birth-death model, and seasonal adjustment. Business births and deaths cannot be adequately	   |
| captured by the establishment survey as they occur. Therefore, the Current Employment Statistics |
| (CES) program uses a model to account for the relatively stable net employment change generated  |
| by business births and deaths. Due to the impact of COVID-19, the relationship between business  |
| births and deaths is no longer stable. Typically, reports with zero employment are not included  |
| in estimation. For the December 2020 benchmarked and January 2021 preliminary estimates, CES     |
| included a portion of these reports in the estimates and made modifications to the birth-death   |
| model. In addition for both months, the establishment survey included a portion of the reports   |
| that returned to reporting positive employment from reporting zero employment. For more 	   |
| information, see www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.						   |
| 												   |
| In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all or any part of the   |
| pay period including the 12th of the month are counted as employed, even if they were not	   |
| actually at their jobs. Workers who are temporarily or permanently absent from their jobs 	   |
| and are not being paid are not counted as employed, even if they are continuing to receive	   |
| benefits. The length of the reference period does vary across the respondents in the		   |
| establishment survey; one-third of businesses have a weekly pay period, slightly over 40 percent |
| a bi-weekly, about 20 percent semi-monthly, and a small amount monthly.			   |
| 												   |
| For the January 2021 estimates of household employment and unemployment from the Local Area	   |
| Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, BLS continued to implement level-shift outliers in 	   |
| the employment and/or unemployment inputs to the state models, based on statistical evaluation   |
| of movements in each area's inputs. Both the Current Population Survey inputs, which serve as	   |
| the primary inputs to the LAUS models, and the nonfarm payroll employment and unemployment	   |
| insurance claims covariates were examined for outliers. The resulting implementation of level	   |
| shifts preserved movements in the published estimates that the models otherwise would have	   |
| discounted, without requiring changes to how the models create estimates at other points in	   |
| the time series.										   |
|												   |
| The "Frequently asked questions" document							   |
| at www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-january-2021.htm extensively discusses   |
| the impact of a misclassification in the household survey on the national estimates for January  |
| 2021. Despite the considerable decline in its degree relative to prior months, this		   |
| misclassification continued to be widespread geographically, with BLS analysis indicating that   |
| most states again were affected to at least some extent. However, according to usual practice,   |
| the data from the household survey are accepted as recorded. To maintain data integrity, no ad   |
| hoc actions are taken to reclassify survey responses. Hence, the household survey estimates of   |
| employed and unemployed people that serve as the primary inputs to the state models were	   |
| affected to varying degrees by the misclassification, which in turn affected the official	   |
| LAUS estimates for January 2021. Similar misclassifications had occurred in the household	   |
| survey from March through December 2020 (see www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-   |
| and-response-on-the-employment-situation-news-release.htm#summaries).				   |
|												   |
| Household data for substate areas are controlled to the employment and unemployment totals 	   |
| for their respective model-based areas. Hence, the preliminary January 2021 estimates for 	   |
| substate areas reflect the use of level-shift outliers, where implemented, in the inputs for	   |
| their model-based control areas. The substate area estimates also were impacted by 		   |
| misclassification in the household survey, in proportion to the impacts of the 		   |
| misclassifications on the data for their model-based control areas.				   |
|												   |
| Household data for Puerto Rico are not modeled, but rather are derived from a monthly 	   |
| household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. The Puerto Rico Department of Labor   |
| has reported a misclassification in its household survey since May 2020 similar in nature to the |
| misclassification in the Current Population Survey, which has affected the local area data       |
| proportionally.